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Arnold Arboretum, 15 May 2010: Pink & white lilac blooms
Website Design Practice
Image by Chris Devers
The Arboretum has an interactive map on their web site. This map is found at the Arborway Gate.

Pasting from Wikipedia: Arnold Arboretum:

• • • • •

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.

History

The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold (1781–1868).

In 1842, Benjamin Bussey (1757–1842), a prosperous Boston merchant and scientific farmer, donated his country estate Woodland Hill and a part of his fortune to Harvard University "for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, and related subjects". Bussey had inherited land from fellow patriot Eleazer Weld in 1800 and further enlarged his large estate between 1806 and 1837 by acquiring and consolidating various farms that had been established as early as the seventeenth century. Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for an undergraduate school of agriculture.

Sixteen years after Bussey’s death, James Arnold, a New Bedford, Massachusetts whaling merchant, specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for "…the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements". In 1872, when the trustees of the will of James Arnold transferred his estate to Harvard University, Arnold’s gift was combined with 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the former Bussey estate to create the Arnold Arboretum. In the deed of trust between the Arnold trustees and the College, income from Arnold’s legacy was to be used for establishing, developing and maintaining an arboretum to be known as the Arnold Arboretum which "shall contain, as far as practicable, all the trees [and] shrubs … either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury". The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of woody plants through research and to disseminate this knowledge through education.

Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution in 1872.[2] Together with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted he developed the road and pathway system and delineated the collection areas by family and genus, following the then current and widely accepted classification system of Bentham and Hooker. The Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H. Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the landscape design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and chief propagator and superintendent Jackson Thornton Johnson.[3] Today the Arboretum occupies 265 acres (107 hectares) of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections, however, are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract. The Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and it is a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site) and a National Historic Landmark.

Robert E. Cook is the seventh and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum. He is also the Director of the Harvard University Herbaria located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Status

The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University. The land, however, was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called "Emerald Necklace". Under the agreement with the City, Harvard University was given a thousand-year lease on the property, and the University, as trustee, is directly responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the Arboretum; the City retains responsibility for water fountains, benches, roads, boundaries, and policing. The annual operating budget of ,350,644 (fiscal year 2003) is largely derived from endowment, which is also managed by the University, and all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors.

Location

The main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station and by bus (#39) to the Monument in Jamaica Plain. The Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points.

Hours

The grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year. The Visitor’s Center in the Hunnewell Building, 125 Arborway, is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m.–4 p.m.; Saturdays 10 a.m.–4 p.m.; Sundays 12 p.m.–4 PM. The Visitor’s Center is closed on holidays. The Library, located in the Hunnewell Building, is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.. The Library is closed on Sundays and holidays. Stacks are closed and the collection does not circulate.

Area

Two hundred and sixty-five acres (107 hectares) in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts, located at 42°19′N 71°5′W / 42.317°N 71.083°W / 42.317; -71.083, with altitudes ranging from 46 feet (15 m) in the meadow across the drive from the Hunnewell Building to 240 feet (79 m) at the top of Peters Hill.

Climate

Average yearly rainfall is 43.63 inches (1,102 mm); average snowfall, 40.2 inches (102 centimeters). Monthly mean temperature is 51.5 °F (10.8 °C); July’s mean temperature is 73.5 °F (23 °C); January’s is 29.6 °F (-1.3 °C). The Arboretum is located in USDA hardiness zone 6 (0 to −10 °F, −18 to −23 °C).

Collections (as of September 14, 2007)

At present, the living collections include 15,441 individual plants (including nursery holdings) belonging to 10,216 accessions representing 4,099 taxa; with particular emphasis on the ligneous species of North America and eastern Asia. Historic collections include the plant introductions from eastern Asia made by Charles Sprague Sargent, Ernest Henry Wilson, William Purdom, Joseph Hers, and Joseph Rock. Recent introductions from Asia have resulted from the 1977 Arnold Arboretum Expedition to Japan and Korea, the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition to western Hubei Province, and more recent expeditions to China and Taiwan.

Comprehensive collections are maintained and augmented for most genera, and genera that have received particular emphasis include: Acer, Fagus, Carya, Forsythia, Taxodium, Pinus, Metasequoia, Lonicera, Magnolia, Malus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Syringa, Paulownia, Albizia, Ilex, Gleditsia and Tsuga. Other comprehensive collections include the Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants, the collection of conifers and dwarf conifers, and the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Approximately 500 accessions are processed annually.

Collections policy

The mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase our knowledge of the evolution and biology of woody plants. Historically, this research has investigated the global distribution and evolutionary history of trees, shrubs and vines, with particular emphasis on the disjunct species of East Asia and North America. Today this work continues through molecular studies of the evolution and biogeography of the floras of temperate Asia, North America and Europe.

Research activities include molecular studies of gene evolution, investigations of plant-water relations, and the monitoring of plant phenology, vegetation succession, nutrient cycling and other factors that inform studies of environmental change. Applied work in horticulture uses the collections for studies in plant propagation, plant introduction, and environmental management. This diversity of scientific investigation is founded in a continuing commitment to acquire, grow, and document the recognized species and infraspecific taxa of ligneous plants of the Northern Hemisphere that are able to withstand the climate of the Arboretum’s 265-acre (1.07 km2) Jamaica Plain/Roslindale site.

As a primary resource for research in plant biology, the Arboretum’s living collections are actively developed, curated, and managed to support scientific investigation and study. To this end, acquisition policies place priority on obtaining plants that are genetically representative of documented wild populations. For each taxon, the Arnold Arboretum aspires to grow multiple accessions of known wild provenance in order to represent significant variation that may occur across the geographic range of the species. Accessions of garden or cultivated provenance are also acquired as governed by the collections policies herein.

For all specimens, full documentation of both provenance and history within the collection is a critical priority. Curatorial procedures provide for complete and accurate records for each accession, and document original provenance, locations in the collections, and changes in botanical identity. Herbarium specimens, DNA materials, and digital images are gathered for the collection and maintained in Arboretum data systems and the herbarium at the Roslindale site.

Research

Research on plant pathology and integrated pest management for maintenance of the living collections is constantly ongoing. Herbarium-based research focuses on the systematics and biodiversity of both temperate and tropical Asian forests, as well as the ecology and potential for sustainable use of their resources. The Arboretum’s education programs offer school groups and the general public a wide range of lectures, courses, and walks focusing on the ecology and cultivation of plants. Its quarterly magazine, Arnoldia, provides in-depth information on horticulture, botany, and garden history. Current Research Initiatives

Plant Records

Plant records are maintained on a computerized database, BG-BASE 6.8 (BG-Base Inc.), which was initiated in 1985 at the request of the Arnold Arboretum and the Threatened Plants Unit (TPU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). A computerized mapping program (based on AutoCAD (Autodesk)) is linked to BG-BASE, and each accession is recorded on a series of maps at a scale of 1-inch (25 mm) to 20 feet (1:240) or 1-inch (25 mm) to 10 feet (1:120). A computer-driven embosser generates records labels. All accessioned plants in the collections are labeled with accession number, botanical name, and cultivar name (when appropriate), source information, common name, and map location. Trunk and/or display labels are also hung on many accessions and include botanical and common names and nativity. Stake labels are used to identify plants located in the Leventritt Garden and Chinese Path.

Grounds Maintenance

The grounds staff consists of the superintendent and assistant superintendent, three arborists, and ten horticultural technologists. A service garage is adjacent to the Hunnewell Building, where offices and locker rooms are located. During the summer months ten horticultural interns supplement the grounds staff. A wide array of vehicles and modern equipment, including an aerial lift truck and a John Deere backhoe and front loader, are used in grounds maintenance. Permanent grounds staff, excluding the superintendents, are members of AFL/CIO Local 615, Service Employees International Union (SEIU).

Nursery and Greenhouse Facilities

The Dana Greenhouses, located at 1050 Centre Street (with a mailing address of 125 Arborway), were completed in 1962. They comprise four service greenhouses totaling 3,744 square feet (348 m²), the headhouse with offices, cold rooms, storage areas, and a classroom. Staffing at the greenhouse includes the manager of greenhouses and nurseries, the plant propagator, two assistants, and, during the summer months, two horticultural interns. Adjacent to the greenhouse is a shade house of 3,150 square feet (293 m²), a 12,600 cubic foot (357 m³) cold storage facility, and three irrigated, inground nurseries totaling approximately one and one-half acres (6,000 m²). Also located in the greenhouse complex is the bonsai pavilion, where the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection is displayed from the middle of April to the end of October. During the winter months the bonsai are held in the cold storage unit at temperatures slightly above freezing.

Isabella Welles Hunnewell Internship Program

The living collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a paid summer internship program [2] that combines hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Intern trainees will be accepted for 12- to 24-week appointments. Ten interns will work with the grounds maintenance department and two in the Dana Greenhouses.

As part of the training program, interns participate in mandatory instructional sessions and field trips in order to develop a broader sense of the Arboretum’s horticultural practices as well as those of other institutions. Sessions and field trips are led by Arnold staff members and embrace an open question and answer format encouraging all to participate. Interns often bring experience and knowledge that everyone, including staff, benefits from. It is a competitive-free learning environment.

Horticultural Apprenticeship

The Arboretum created the horticultural apprenticeship program in 1997 to provide hands-on experience in all aspects of the development, curation, and maintenance of the Arboretum’s living collections to individuals interested in pursuing a career in an arboretum or botanical garden.

The Living Collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a summer internship program[4] that combines practical hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Fourteen Interns/Horticultural Trainees are accepted for twelve to twenty-four week appointments. Interns receive the majority of their training in one of three departments: Grounds Maintenance, Nursery and Greenhouse, or Plant Records.

Lilac Sunday

The second Sunday in May every year is "Lilac Sunday". This is the only day of the year that picnicing is allowed. In 2008, on the 100th anniversary of Lilac Sunday, the Arboretum website touted:

Of the thousands of flowering plants in the Arboretum, only one, the lilac, is singled out each year for a daylong celebration. On Lilac Sunday, garden enthusiasts from all over New England gather at the Arboretum to picnic, watch Morris dancing, and tour the lilac collection. On the day of the event, which takes place rain or shine, the Arboretum is open as usual from dawn to dusk.[5]

Associated Collections

The Arboretum’s herbarium in Jamaica Plain holds specimens of cultivated plants that relate to the living collections (ca. 160,000). The Jamaica Plain herbarium, horticultural library, archives, and photographs are maintained in the Hunnewell building at 125 Arborway; however, the main portions of the herbarium and library collections are housed in Cambridge on the campus of Harvard University, at 22 Divinity Avenue.

Publications

The inventory of living collections is updated periodically and made available to sister botanical gardens and arboreta on request; it is also available on the Arboretum’s website (searchable inventory). Arnoldia, the quarterly magazine of the Arnold Arboretum, frequently publishes articles relating to the living collections. A Reunion of Trees[6] by Stephen A. Spongberg (curator emeritus) recounts the history of the introduction of many of the exotic species included in the Arobretum’s collections. New England Natives[7] written by horticultural research archivist Sheila Connor describes many of the trees and shrubs of the New England flora and the ways New Englanders have used them since prehistoric times. Science in the Pleasure Ground[8] by Ida Hay (former curatorial associate) constitutes an institutional biography of the Arboretum.

Institutional Collaborations

The Arboretum maintains an institutional membership in the American Public Garden Association (APGA) and the International Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Additionally, members of the staff are associated with many national and international botanical and horticultural organizations. The Arboretum is also a cooperating institution with the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), and as an active member of the North American Plant Collections Consortium (NAPCC), it is committed to broadening and maintaining its holdings of: Acer, Carya, Fagus, Stewartia, Syringa, and Tsuga for the purposes of plant conservation, evaluation, and research. The Arboretum is also a member of the North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC).

See also

Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection, donated by businessman and ambassador Larz Anderson
The Case Estates of the Arnold Arboretum
List of botanical gardens in the United States
North American Plant Collections Consortium
Adams-Nervine_Asylum

External links

Arnold Arboretum Official Website
Arnold Arboretum Visitor Information
Harvard University Herbaria
American Public Gardens Association (APGA)
Flora of China
Virtual Information Access (VIA) Catalog of visual resources at Harvard University.
Garden and Forest A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry (1888–1897)
Boston’s Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan
The Emerald Necklace: Boston’s Green Connection, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

The world of web design today must cater to a myriad of devices and resolutions. In this new order of device diversity, it’s time to shake off outdated web practices.

One such practice is omnipresent “above the fold” placement. This expression comes from back in the day when the majority of people got their news from newspapers. It refers to the upper half of a paper where the most important story and images were located. In web design, it is also referred to as “above the scroll”.

There’s an old fashioned view pervading web development that all important information should be placed above the fold, or before you need to scroll down to see more. This trend persists, even if it makes a page look like a salesy smorgasbord of clutter.

Read full article: http://ifactory.com.au/news/the-fold-is-dead

Responsive Web Design Services in Sydney

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web writings
Web Design Practice
Image by dotun55
Not every photo of writing spiders centred upon conspicuous, decorative webs on the periphery of the floras around the building that I take actually gets published. The more photographs I stocked of the writing spiders, the less fascinated I got about them. The fact that they are the most common species in the surrounding contributed to my gradual disenchantment towards them. The maxim ‘familiarity breeds contempt’ proves true for all animate things and inanimate alike. We tend to take things and people for granted after we get accustomed to them. There is often a misconception that we already know everything there is to know about them, and that is when the disinterest sets in.

No matter how rampant they are, the probability of spotting a writing spider on a completed web is however low; average of one per month. The effort and time the fairly small spiders put into the development of their wonder web might give account to the statistic. And this causes them to be perceived to be as scarce as the smaller camouflaging crab spiders and lowlight-hunting lynx spiders resident in the common habitat.‎

I was eager to show off the first writing spider. It was an exciting find. I had never seen a web as decorated before. ‎The following observation which was slightly different in colouring was also shared, in sequence to the first. Subsequent sightings in the environment were no different from the originals. I am inclined to ignore new observations if there are no peculiar features found on them. Others I do not completely ignore, I use to warm my camera by exploring new perspectives and practising better focus. Good images taken are retained for a while in my device or camera memory. They get reviewed regularly. Some get deleted after a while.

Above is a photo of the most recent writing spider. Its glorified web was suspended over a depression in a hedge next to a walk way. ‎The next few days witnessed an unusual but progressive transformation of the web of this particular specimen. A probable explanation for this is a consistent and creative attempt by the spider to make a normally short-lived we‎b last longer. As parts of the web fail, the spider reinforces the underlying foundation threads. This action invariably leads to formation of a new or different web design every time. Now the evolution of the patterns or design over time is a thing of interest. Could web patterns resembling certain alphabets be an indication of a smart web-weaver? Or perhaps a mathematically-inclined arachnid, since the characters are popular algebraic cliches?In any case, here is a challenge posed by an insect. A riddle. A picture puzzle. It is a reminder of one of such general mathematics problems with the unforgettable appendage delivering the urgent request ‘find x’. Once again, we find x. And why too.

The Importance Of Website Design In An Internet Marketing Plan

The majority of internet marketers focus heavily on Internet Marketing. But they forget about website design. This is a mistake. Let’s take a look at why website design is so important in any internet marketing plan.

The primary goal of Internet Marketing

Internet marketing is vital to the success of any website. It helps bring in targeted traffic, which can be converted to sales. Without targeted traffic, a website is as good as dead. But don’t forget, the primary goal of Internet Marketing is to make more sales. All the traffic in the world would be useless if web visitors are not converted to buying customers. Here is where many Internet marketers make a grave mistake – they forget about website design.

There are many reasons why website design is often neglected. Perhaps they don’t see the relevance of professional design in their web business. Sometimes, it’s hard to see the connection between site design and online sales. So many marketers tend to focus exclusively on traffic generation, and they forget all about design. Perhaps you have seen many such sites. They may offer valuable products and services for sale, but they look plain, boring, and maybe even ugly. Will that translate to lost sales?

Think about this. If two websites offer exactly the same product or service, but one is more professionally designed than the other. Which one would you pick to do business with? Most would have picked the better designed website. In other words, impression counts. That brings us to the question, what is quality design? What design characteristics will help boost online sales?

1) Harmonious looking design.

Pay attention to the colors being used. The overall effect should be one that is pleasant and soothing to look at. The benefits of having a compatible color scheme is not always obvious. Often, the pleasant effects of the color scheme goes unnoticed on a conscious level. You know that a website has gotten it right when you visit a website and felt comfortable right away. You feel at ease to stay and browse. Surely, that will help to increase online sales.

2) Well placed graphics.

A marketer who is not mindful of web design tend to place graphics randomly. Many people have been led to believe that graphics will make a website look more professional. So they use images at every turn. This turns out to be a mistake – graphics can be over-used. Images tend to attract more attention compared to static text. So when they are over-used, they tend to distract the visitor from the most important marketing messages on the website.

Therefore, graphics should only be used if they can be used to express something important. For instance, it can be used as a call-to-action. You want visitors to click on the Buy Now button after reading the lengthy texts on your website. Sometimes, it’s just better to let the pictures do the “talking”. A simple picture (think travel sites) works a lot better than descriptive words.

The above sounds easy in theory, but in practice, only those with extensive experience will be able to make the right design decisions. Therefore, try to pick a professional web design firm when setting up a website.

Vadim Kotin – VN Web Group.
Contact us to find out more about Website design and Internet marketing.

Arnold Arboretum: Golden light through green-en trees
Website Design Practice
Image by Chris Devers
The Arboretum has an interactive map on their web site. This map is found at the Arborway Gate.

Pasting from Wikipedia: Arnold Arboretum:

• • • • •

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.

History

The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold (1781–1868).

In 1842, Benjamin Bussey (1757–1842), a prosperous Boston merchant and scientific farmer, donated his country estate Woodland Hill and a part of his fortune to Harvard University "for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, and related subjects". Bussey had inherited land from fellow patriot Eleazer Weld in 1800 and further enlarged his large estate between 1806 and 1837 by acquiring and consolidating various farms that had been established as early as the seventeenth century. Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for an undergraduate school of agriculture.

Sixteen years after Bussey’s death, James Arnold, a New Bedford, Massachusetts whaling merchant, specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for "…the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements". In 1872, when the trustees of the will of James Arnold transferred his estate to Harvard University, Arnold’s gift was combined with 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the former Bussey estate to create the Arnold Arboretum. In the deed of trust between the Arnold trustees and the College, income from Arnold’s legacy was to be used for establishing, developing and maintaining an arboretum to be known as the Arnold Arboretum which "shall contain, as far as practicable, all the trees [and] shrubs … either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury". The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of woody plants through research and to disseminate this knowledge through education.

Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution in 1872.[2] Together with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted he developed the road and pathway system and delineated the collection areas by family and genus, following the then current and widely accepted classification system of Bentham and Hooker. The Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H. Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the landscape design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and chief propagator and superintendent Jackson Thornton Johnson.[3] Today the Arboretum occupies 265 acres (107 hectares) of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections, however, are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract. The Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and it is a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site) and a National Historic Landmark.

Robert E. Cook is the seventh and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum. He is also the Director of the Harvard University Herbaria located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Status

The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University. The land, however, was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called "Emerald Necklace". Under the agreement with the City, Harvard University was given a thousand-year lease on the property, and the University, as trustee, is directly responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the Arboretum; the City retains responsibility for water fountains, benches, roads, boundaries, and policing. The annual operating budget of ,350,644 (fiscal year 2003) is largely derived from endowment, which is also managed by the University, and all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors.

Location

The main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station and by bus (#39) to the Monument in Jamaica Plain. The Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points.

Hours

The grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year. The Visitor’s Center in the Hunnewell Building, 125 Arborway, is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m.–4 p.m.; Saturdays 10 a.m.–4 p.m.; Sundays 12 p.m.–4 PM. The Visitor’s Center is closed on holidays. The Library, located in the Hunnewell Building, is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.. The Library is closed on Sundays and holidays. Stacks are closed and the collection does not circulate.

Area

Two hundred and sixty-five acres (107 hectares) in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts, located at 42°19′N 71°5′W / 42.317°N 71.083°W / 42.317; -71.083, with altitudes ranging from 46 feet (15 m) in the meadow across the drive from the Hunnewell Building to 240 feet (79 m) at the top of Peters Hill.

Climate

Average yearly rainfall is 43.63 inches (1,102 mm); average snowfall, 40.2 inches (102 centimeters). Monthly mean temperature is 51.5 °F (10.8 °C); July’s mean temperature is 73.5 °F (23 °C); January’s is 29.6 °F (-1.3 °C). The Arboretum is located in USDA hardiness zone 6 (0 to −10 °F, −18 to −23 °C).

Collections (as of September 14, 2007)

At present, the living collections include 15,441 individual plants (including nursery holdings) belonging to 10,216 accessions representing 4,099 taxa; with particular emphasis on the ligneous species of North America and eastern Asia. Historic collections include the plant introductions from eastern Asia made by Charles Sprague Sargent, Ernest Henry Wilson, William Purdom, Joseph Hers, and Joseph Rock. Recent introductions from Asia have resulted from the 1977 Arnold Arboretum Expedition to Japan and Korea, the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition to western Hubei Province, and more recent expeditions to China and Taiwan.

Comprehensive collections are maintained and augmented for most genera, and genera that have received particular emphasis include: Acer, Fagus, Carya, Forsythia, Taxodium, Pinus, Metasequoia, Lonicera, Magnolia, Malus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Syringa, Paulownia, Albizia, Ilex, Gleditsia and Tsuga. Other comprehensive collections include the Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants, the collection of conifers and dwarf conifers, and the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Approximately 500 accessions are processed annually.

Collections policy

The mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase our knowledge of the evolution and biology of woody plants. Historically, this research has investigated the global distribution and evolutionary history of trees, shrubs and vines, with particular emphasis on the disjunct species of East Asia and North America. Today this work continues through molecular studies of the evolution and biogeography of the floras of temperate Asia, North America and Europe.

Research activities include molecular studies of gene evolution, investigations of plant-water relations, and the monitoring of plant phenology, vegetation succession, nutrient cycling and other factors that inform studies of environmental change. Applied work in horticulture uses the collections for studies in plant propagation, plant introduction, and environmental management. This diversity of scientific investigation is founded in a continuing commitment to acquire, grow, and document the recognized species and infraspecific taxa of ligneous plants of the Northern Hemisphere that are able to withstand the climate of the Arboretum’s 265-acre (1.07 km2) Jamaica Plain/Roslindale site.

As a primary resource for research in plant biology, the Arboretum’s living collections are actively developed, curated, and managed to support scientific investigation and study. To this end, acquisition policies place priority on obtaining plants that are genetically representative of documented wild populations. For each taxon, the Arnold Arboretum aspires to grow multiple accessions of known wild provenance in order to represent significant variation that may occur across the geographic range of the species. Accessions of garden or cultivated provenance are also acquired as governed by the collections policies herein.

For all specimens, full documentation of both provenance and history within the collection is a critical priority. Curatorial procedures provide for complete and accurate records for each accession, and document original provenance, locations in the collections, and changes in botanical identity. Herbarium specimens, DNA materials, and digital images are gathered for the collection and maintained in Arboretum data systems and the herbarium at the Roslindale site.

Research

Research on plant pathology and integrated pest management for maintenance of the living collections is constantly ongoing. Herbarium-based research focuses on the systematics and biodiversity of both temperate and tropical Asian forests, as well as the ecology and potential for sustainable use of their resources. The Arboretum’s education programs offer school groups and the general public a wide range of lectures, courses, and walks focusing on the ecology and cultivation of plants. Its quarterly magazine, Arnoldia, provides in-depth information on horticulture, botany, and garden history. Current Research Initiatives

Plant Records

Plant records are maintained on a computerized database, BG-BASE 6.8 (BG-Base Inc.), which was initiated in 1985 at the request of the Arnold Arboretum and the Threatened Plants Unit (TPU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). A computerized mapping program (based on AutoCAD (Autodesk)) is linked to BG-BASE, and each accession is recorded on a series of maps at a scale of 1-inch (25 mm) to 20 feet (1:240) or 1-inch (25 mm) to 10 feet (1:120). A computer-driven embosser generates records labels. All accessioned plants in the collections are labeled with accession number, botanical name, and cultivar name (when appropriate), source information, common name, and map location. Trunk and/or display labels are also hung on many accessions and include botanical and common names and nativity. Stake labels are used to identify plants located in the Leventritt Garden and Chinese Path.

Grounds Maintenance

The grounds staff consists of the superintendent and assistant superintendent, three arborists, and ten horticultural technologists. A service garage is adjacent to the Hunnewell Building, where offices and locker rooms are located. During the summer months ten horticultural interns supplement the grounds staff. A wide array of vehicles and modern equipment, including an aerial lift truck and a John Deere backhoe and front loader, are used in grounds maintenance. Permanent grounds staff, excluding the superintendents, are members of AFL/CIO Local 615, Service Employees International Union (SEIU).

Nursery and Greenhouse Facilities

The Dana Greenhouses, located at 1050 Centre Street (with a mailing address of 125 Arborway), were completed in 1962. They comprise four service greenhouses totaling 3,744 square feet (348 m²), the headhouse with offices, cold rooms, storage areas, and a classroom. Staffing at the greenhouse includes the manager of greenhouses and nurseries, the plant propagator, two assistants, and, during the summer months, two horticultural interns. Adjacent to the greenhouse is a shade house of 3,150 square feet (293 m²), a 12,600 cubic foot (357 m³) cold storage facility, and three irrigated, inground nurseries totaling approximately one and one-half acres (6,000 m²). Also located in the greenhouse complex is the bonsai pavilion, where the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection is displayed from the middle of April to the end of October. During the winter months the bonsai are held in the cold storage unit at temperatures slightly above freezing.

Isabella Welles Hunnewell Internship Program

The living collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a paid summer internship program [2] that combines hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Intern trainees will be accepted for 12- to 24-week appointments. Ten interns will work with the grounds maintenance department and two in the Dana Greenhouses.

As part of the training program, interns participate in mandatory instructional sessions and field trips in order to develop a broader sense of the Arboretum’s horticultural practices as well as those of other institutions. Sessions and field trips are led by Arnold staff members and embrace an open question and answer format encouraging all to participate. Interns often bring experience and knowledge that everyone, including staff, benefits from. It is a competitive-free learning environment.

Horticultural Apprenticeship

The Arboretum created the horticultural apprenticeship program in 1997 to provide hands-on experience in all aspects of the development, curation, and maintenance of the Arboretum’s living collections to individuals interested in pursuing a career in an arboretum or botanical garden.

The Living Collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a summer internship program[4] that combines practical hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Fourteen Interns/Horticultural Trainees are accepted for twelve to twenty-four week appointments. Interns receive the majority of their training in one of three departments: Grounds Maintenance, Nursery and Greenhouse, or Plant Records.

Lilac Sunday

The second Sunday in May every year is "Lilac Sunday". This is the only day of the year that picnicing is allowed. In 2008, on the 100th anniversary of Lilac Sunday, the Arboretum website touted:

Of the thousands of flowering plants in the Arboretum, only one, the lilac, is singled out each year for a daylong celebration. On Lilac Sunday, garden enthusiasts from all over New England gather at the Arboretum to picnic, watch Morris dancing, and tour the lilac collection. On the day of the event, which takes place rain or shine, the Arboretum is open as usual from dawn to dusk.[5]

Associated Collections

The Arboretum’s herbarium in Jamaica Plain holds specimens of cultivated plants that relate to the living collections (ca. 160,000). The Jamaica Plain herbarium, horticultural library, archives, and photographs are maintained in the Hunnewell building at 125 Arborway; however, the main portions of the herbarium and library collections are housed in Cambridge on the campus of Harvard University, at 22 Divinity Avenue.

Publications

The inventory of living collections is updated periodically and made available to sister botanical gardens and arboreta on request; it is also available on the Arboretum’s website (searchable inventory). Arnoldia, the quarterly magazine of the Arnold Arboretum, frequently publishes articles relating to the living collections. A Reunion of Trees[6] by Stephen A. Spongberg (curator emeritus) recounts the history of the introduction of many of the exotic species included in the Arobretum’s collections. New England Natives[7] written by horticultural research archivist Sheila Connor describes many of the trees and shrubs of the New England flora and the ways New Englanders have used them since prehistoric times. Science in the Pleasure Ground[8] by Ida Hay (former curatorial associate) constitutes an institutional biography of the Arboretum.

Institutional Collaborations

The Arboretum maintains an institutional membership in the American Public Garden Association (APGA) and the International Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Additionally, members of the staff are associated with many national and international botanical and horticultural organizations. The Arboretum is also a cooperating institution with the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), and as an active member of the North American Plant Collections Consortium (NAPCC), it is committed to broadening and maintaining its holdings of: Acer, Carya, Fagus, Stewartia, Syringa, and Tsuga for the purposes of plant conservation, evaluation, and research. The Arboretum is also a member of the North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC).

See also

Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection, donated by businessman and ambassador Larz Anderson
The Case Estates of the Arnold Arboretum
List of botanical gardens in the United States
North American Plant Collections Consortium
Adams-Nervine_Asylum

External links

Arnold Arboretum Official Website
Arnold Arboretum Visitor Information
Harvard University Herbaria
American Public Gardens Association (APGA)
Flora of China
Virtual Information Access (VIA) Catalog of visual resources at Harvard University.
Garden and Forest A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry (1888–1897)
Boston’s Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan
The Emerald Necklace: Boston’s Green Connection, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

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Arnold Arboretum, 18 May 2010: Baby pine cone on a tree atop Bussey Hill
Website Design Practice
Image by Chris Devers
The Arboretum has an interactive map on their web site. This map is found at the Arborway Gate.

Pasting from Wikipedia: Arnold Arboretum:

• • • • •

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.

History

The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold (1781–1868).

In 1842, Benjamin Bussey (1757–1842), a prosperous Boston merchant and scientific farmer, donated his country estate Woodland Hill and a part of his fortune to Harvard University "for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, and related subjects". Bussey had inherited land from fellow patriot Eleazer Weld in 1800 and further enlarged his large estate between 1806 and 1837 by acquiring and consolidating various farms that had been established as early as the seventeenth century. Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for an undergraduate school of agriculture.

Sixteen years after Bussey’s death, James Arnold, a New Bedford, Massachusetts whaling merchant, specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for "…the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements". In 1872, when the trustees of the will of James Arnold transferred his estate to Harvard University, Arnold’s gift was combined with 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the former Bussey estate to create the Arnold Arboretum. In the deed of trust between the Arnold trustees and the College, income from Arnold’s legacy was to be used for establishing, developing and maintaining an arboretum to be known as the Arnold Arboretum which "shall contain, as far as practicable, all the trees [and] shrubs … either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury". The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of woody plants through research and to disseminate this knowledge through education.

Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution in 1872.[2] Together with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted he developed the road and pathway system and delineated the collection areas by family and genus, following the then current and widely accepted classification system of Bentham and Hooker. The Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H. Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the landscape design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and chief propagator and superintendent Jackson Thornton Johnson.[3] Today the Arboretum occupies 265 acres (107 hectares) of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections, however, are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract. The Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and it is a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site) and a National Historic Landmark.

Robert E. Cook is the seventh and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum. He is also the Director of the Harvard University Herbaria located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Status

The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University. The land, however, was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called "Emerald Necklace". Under the agreement with the City, Harvard University was given a thousand-year lease on the property, and the University, as trustee, is directly responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the Arboretum; the City retains responsibility for water fountains, benches, roads, boundaries, and policing. The annual operating budget of ,350,644 (fiscal year 2003) is largely derived from endowment, which is also managed by the University, and all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors.

Location

The main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station and by bus (#39) to the Monument in Jamaica Plain. The Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points.

Hours

The grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year. The Visitor’s Center in the Hunnewell Building, 125 Arborway, is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m.–4 p.m.; Saturdays 10 a.m.–4 p.m.; Sundays 12 p.m.–4 PM. The Visitor’s Center is closed on holidays. The Library, located in the Hunnewell Building, is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.. The Library is closed on Sundays and holidays. Stacks are closed and the collection does not circulate.

Area

Two hundred and sixty-five acres (107 hectares) in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts, located at 42°19′N 71°5′W / 42.317°N 71.083°W / 42.317; -71.083, with altitudes ranging from 46 feet (15 m) in the meadow across the drive from the Hunnewell Building to 240 feet (79 m) at the top of Peters Hill.

Climate

Average yearly rainfall is 43.63 inches (1,102 mm); average snowfall, 40.2 inches (102 centimeters). Monthly mean temperature is 51.5 °F (10.8 °C); July’s mean temperature is 73.5 °F (23 °C); January’s is 29.6 °F (-1.3 °C). The Arboretum is located in USDA hardiness zone 6 (0 to −10 °F, −18 to −23 °C).

Collections (as of September 14, 2007)

At present, the living collections include 15,441 individual plants (including nursery holdings) belonging to 10,216 accessions representing 4,099 taxa; with particular emphasis on the ligneous species of North America and eastern Asia. Historic collections include the plant introductions from eastern Asia made by Charles Sprague Sargent, Ernest Henry Wilson, William Purdom, Joseph Hers, and Joseph Rock. Recent introductions from Asia have resulted from the 1977 Arnold Arboretum Expedition to Japan and Korea, the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition to western Hubei Province, and more recent expeditions to China and Taiwan.

Comprehensive collections are maintained and augmented for most genera, and genera that have received particular emphasis include: Acer, Fagus, Carya, Forsythia, Taxodium, Pinus, Metasequoia, Lonicera, Magnolia, Malus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Syringa, Paulownia, Albizia, Ilex, Gleditsia and Tsuga. Other comprehensive collections include the Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants, the collection of conifers and dwarf conifers, and the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Approximately 500 accessions are processed annually.

Collections policy

The mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase our knowledge of the evolution and biology of woody plants. Historically, this research has investigated the global distribution and evolutionary history of trees, shrubs and vines, with particular emphasis on the disjunct species of East Asia and North America. Today this work continues through molecular studies of the evolution and biogeography of the floras of temperate Asia, North America and Europe.

Research activities include molecular studies of gene evolution, investigations of plant-water relations, and the monitoring of plant phenology, vegetation succession, nutrient cycling and other factors that inform studies of environmental change. Applied work in horticulture uses the collections for studies in plant propagation, plant introduction, and environmental management. This diversity of scientific investigation is founded in a continuing commitment to acquire, grow, and document the recognized species and infraspecific taxa of ligneous plants of the Northern Hemisphere that are able to withstand the climate of the Arboretum’s 265-acre (1.07 km2) Jamaica Plain/Roslindale site.

As a primary resource for research in plant biology, the Arboretum’s living collections are actively developed, curated, and managed to support scientific investigation and study. To this end, acquisition policies place priority on obtaining plants that are genetically representative of documented wild populations. For each taxon, the Arnold Arboretum aspires to grow multiple accessions of known wild provenance in order to represent significant variation that may occur across the geographic range of the species. Accessions of garden or cultivated provenance are also acquired as governed by the collections policies herein.

For all specimens, full documentation of both provenance and history within the collection is a critical priority. Curatorial procedures provide for complete and accurate records for each accession, and document original provenance, locations in the collections, and changes in botanical identity. Herbarium specimens, DNA materials, and digital images are gathered for the collection and maintained in Arboretum data systems and the herbarium at the Roslindale site.

Research

Research on plant pathology and integrated pest management for maintenance of the living collections is constantly ongoing. Herbarium-based research focuses on the systematics and biodiversity of both temperate and tropical Asian forests, as well as the ecology and potential for sustainable use of their resources. The Arboretum’s education programs offer school groups and the general public a wide range of lectures, courses, and walks focusing on the ecology and cultivation of plants. Its quarterly magazine, Arnoldia, provides in-depth information on horticulture, botany, and garden history. Current Research Initiatives

Plant Records

Plant records are maintained on a computerized database, BG-BASE 6.8 (BG-Base Inc.), which was initiated in 1985 at the request of the Arnold Arboretum and the Threatened Plants Unit (TPU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). A computerized mapping program (based on AutoCAD (Autodesk)) is linked to BG-BASE, and each accession is recorded on a series of maps at a scale of 1-inch (25 mm) to 20 feet (1:240) or 1-inch (25 mm) to 10 feet (1:120). A computer-driven embosser generates records labels. All accessioned plants in the collections are labeled with accession number, botanical name, and cultivar name (when appropriate), source information, common name, and map location. Trunk and/or display labels are also hung on many accessions and include botanical and common names and nativity. Stake labels are used to identify plants located in the Leventritt Garden and Chinese Path.

Grounds Maintenance

The grounds staff consists of the superintendent and assistant superintendent, three arborists, and ten horticultural technologists. A service garage is adjacent to the Hunnewell Building, where offices and locker rooms are located. During the summer months ten horticultural interns supplement the grounds staff. A wide array of vehicles and modern equipment, including an aerial lift truck and a John Deere backhoe and front loader, are used in grounds maintenance. Permanent grounds staff, excluding the superintendents, are members of AFL/CIO Local 615, Service Employees International Union (SEIU).

Nursery and Greenhouse Facilities

The Dana Greenhouses, located at 1050 Centre Street (with a mailing address of 125 Arborway), were completed in 1962. They comprise four service greenhouses totaling 3,744 square feet (348 m²), the headhouse with offices, cold rooms, storage areas, and a classroom. Staffing at the greenhouse includes the manager of greenhouses and nurseries, the plant propagator, two assistants, and, during the summer months, two horticultural interns. Adjacent to the greenhouse is a shade house of 3,150 square feet (293 m²), a 12,600 cubic foot (357 m³) cold storage facility, and three irrigated, inground nurseries totaling approximately one and one-half acres (6,000 m²). Also located in the greenhouse complex is the bonsai pavilion, where the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection is displayed from the middle of April to the end of October. During the winter months the bonsai are held in the cold storage unit at temperatures slightly above freezing.

Isabella Welles Hunnewell Internship Program

The living collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a paid summer internship program [2] that combines hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Intern trainees will be accepted for 12- to 24-week appointments. Ten interns will work with the grounds maintenance department and two in the Dana Greenhouses.

As part of the training program, interns participate in mandatory instructional sessions and field trips in order to develop a broader sense of the Arboretum’s horticultural practices as well as those of other institutions. Sessions and field trips are led by Arnold staff members and embrace an open question and answer format encouraging all to participate. Interns often bring experience and knowledge that everyone, including staff, benefits from. It is a competitive-free learning environment.

Horticultural Apprenticeship

The Arboretum created the horticultural apprenticeship program in 1997 to provide hands-on experience in all aspects of the development, curation, and maintenance of the Arboretum’s living collections to individuals interested in pursuing a career in an arboretum or botanical garden.

The Living Collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a summer internship program[4] that combines practical hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Fourteen Interns/Horticultural Trainees are accepted for twelve to twenty-four week appointments. Interns receive the majority of their training in one of three departments: Grounds Maintenance, Nursery and Greenhouse, or Plant Records.

Lilac Sunday

The second Sunday in May every year is "Lilac Sunday". This is the only day of the year that picnicing is allowed. In 2008, on the 100th anniversary of Lilac Sunday, the Arboretum website touted:

Of the thousands of flowering plants in the Arboretum, only one, the lilac, is singled out each year for a daylong celebration. On Lilac Sunday, garden enthusiasts from all over New England gather at the Arboretum to picnic, watch Morris dancing, and tour the lilac collection. On the day of the event, which takes place rain or shine, the Arboretum is open as usual from dawn to dusk.[5]

Associated Collections

The Arboretum’s herbarium in Jamaica Plain holds specimens of cultivated plants that relate to the living collections (ca. 160,000). The Jamaica Plain herbarium, horticultural library, archives, and photographs are maintained in the Hunnewell building at 125 Arborway; however, the main portions of the herbarium and library collections are housed in Cambridge on the campus of Harvard University, at 22 Divinity Avenue.

Publications

The inventory of living collections is updated periodically and made available to sister botanical gardens and arboreta on request; it is also available on the Arboretum’s website (searchable inventory). Arnoldia, the quarterly magazine of the Arnold Arboretum, frequently publishes articles relating to the living collections. A Reunion of Trees[6] by Stephen A. Spongberg (curator emeritus) recounts the history of the introduction of many of the exotic species included in the Arobretum’s collections. New England Natives[7] written by horticultural research archivist Sheila Connor describes many of the trees and shrubs of the New England flora and the ways New Englanders have used them since prehistoric times. Science in the Pleasure Ground[8] by Ida Hay (former curatorial associate) constitutes an institutional biography of the Arboretum.

Institutional Collaborations

The Arboretum maintains an institutional membership in the American Public Garden Association (APGA) and the International Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Additionally, members of the staff are associated with many national and international botanical and horticultural organizations. The Arboretum is also a cooperating institution with the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), and as an active member of the North American Plant Collections Consortium (NAPCC), it is committed to broadening and maintaining its holdings of: Acer, Carya, Fagus, Stewartia, Syringa, and Tsuga for the purposes of plant conservation, evaluation, and research. The Arboretum is also a member of the North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC).

See also

Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection, donated by businessman and ambassador Larz Anderson
The Case Estates of the Arnold Arboretum
List of botanical gardens in the United States
North American Plant Collections Consortium
Adams-Nervine_Asylum

External links

Arnold Arboretum Official Website
Arnold Arboretum Visitor Information
Harvard University Herbaria
American Public Gardens Association (APGA)
Flora of China
Virtual Information Access (VIA) Catalog of visual resources at Harvard University.
Garden and Forest A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry (1888–1897)
Boston’s Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan
The Emerald Necklace: Boston’s Green Connection, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

More Website Design Practice Articles

Face Off between Mobile Website Design and Responsive Web Design

Face Off between Mobile Website Design and Responsive Web Design
If a mobile website design company in Long Beach still advocates the importance of having a mobile website, then there might be a reason for such a statement. It is possible that such website graphic design Long Beach companies are still getting a fair share of profit working on mobile applications and mobile websites. A significant reason for this prevalent practice can be the ignorance of the common folk towards responsive website design (RWD), which has come into existence only half a decade ago. The constant duel between a mobile website and responsive design has the average folk in dilemma.
Approved by the World Wide Web Consortium (w3c) as the ideal technique of building future-proof website, responsive web design is considered the technology of the future. The term was coined by Ethan Marcotte, in 2010, it first appeared in an article in the magazine A List Apart. Since then, the website industry hasn’t looked back as RWD is making the advancements since its inception. Comparing a responsive website to a mobile website becomes even more important than before.

*A responsive website means a website, which can adapt itself to any viewport or screen size. A mobile website is the copy of a desktop website. It is smaller in size and easy to navigate.

*In a mobile web site, a different domain name is required as opposed to a responsive website, which works on a single domain. The search traffic might get weakened due to domain bifurcation.

*Responsive web design has a single codebase whereas a mobile website has two separate code base, which may be tedious to maintain and a burden on the programmer.

*A mobile website has its use in e-commerce especially. Few e-commerce websites have a large product database and big slider themes. A responsive design strategy is not suitable for such websites. They need dedicated mobile websites with seamless navigation, which is more compatible to handle this genre.

*A responsive website can take its toll on the mobile while loading in the device. A mobile website is faster to use because it loads on the server. A responsive website does the work in calculating and resizing the graphics.

*Load speed of the website governs the conversion rates, which are high for a mobile website but low for a responsive one.

*Responsive web design is future friendly. Even Google recommends it.

There will always be strife in between the choices but, it depends upon the requirements of the individuals. The scales seem to be inclined towards responsive web design yet, mobile websites are popular as ever. Finally, it will all come down to the user and the ease of access. Whatever will be the popular choice, it would prevail in the longer run.

Laura Collins is an English writer. She loves to write articles, blogs and web news about the best mobile web design company in Long Beach. In this article she has shared interesting view on the comparison between responsive website and mobile website.

doors of perception
Website Design Practice
Image by new 1lluminati
The Men Who Stare At Scapegoats ~
…Stupid religious fables suit the purposes of plutocrats who care nothing for the crap vomited out by churches, temples, synagogues and mosques. They know where their real truth of material wealth that spans immortal ages lies – in oil and minerals, factories and farms, workers and taxes. They’ve used various religions to blind and bind their landlocked wage serfs since Adam was a lad.

Most people fail to realise there are only around twenty million Jehovah-bedamned Jews in the entire world. There are around a BILLION followers of Islime, a BILLION Cathoholics, a BILLION other Christians, a BILLION Chinese and at least half a billion each of Hindus and Buddhists. Those who claim Jews run the world must have very low regard for their own people, or they must believe Jews are something more than human.

The Catholic Jesuit (NOT Jewish) Rothschild banking dynasty and all their egregious bankster associates have taken advantage of the stupidity of others to make money for centuries, but that particular Vatican-dominated ‘Court Jew’ banking cartel controls only a fraction of the world’s REAL wealth.

Ever hear of the House of Saud? How about all the other oil-rich Gulf nations? Do you think they entrust their wealth to their adversaries? What about the Chinese and Indians? What about Switzerland? How about Russia and Korea? Or the Vatican? It’s easier to blame the Jews for the crimes of all banksters than to recognise that the biggest Western banksters are members of a secretive cult of Jesuits, or that Jews probably only control about 10% of the world’s real wealth and monetary illusions.

Many claim the Vatican is the ultimate culprit, but like all gangster front organisations such as other governments, monarchies and banking corporations, the unholy Roman megacult is ruled by individual nonbelieving gangsters – rich, greedy, cynical fat cat men and women with names and addresses and an incredible amount to hide.

Do you think the Jesuit Rothschilds control or ‘own’ China or Russia or the Vatican trillions? Think again. They may own lots of money – but money doesn’t exist. It’s crappy pottage made for peons and taxable wage slaves. The real owners don’t use the stuff. It’s a distracting fable that helps hide the sources and repositories of true wealth. Knowledge isn’t power. Money isn’t power. Power is power, and the primary power of true ownership is the power to kill competitors and enforce dominance.

The real ‘owners’ are dynastic and monarchic in dust realists with legions of partisan followers who allow neuvo riche banksters and other apparent rivals to exist – it’s not the other way around, as many presume. Old Money still rules, because it has little to do with money and everything to do with real, vital resources. The banksters are a handy foil and shield for inbred, neotonous, nepotistic families that have been trained for millennia to believe they’re born to rule everyone else.

Most of the worst are supposed Catholics or WASPS; nonbelieving, domineering materialists who merely pretend to be Christians. They are racist, predatory, self-styled kings and queens, dukes and earls, barons and knights – warmongers in sheep’s clothing to whom the supremacy of bloodline is all that matters. They want everyone to believe that Jesus was their great-great grandfather so they have the ‘right’ to dominate all mere mortals.

And of course there are similar ‘divine’ aristocracies in most Eastern nations that hold superstitious, well-entrained people in servile salaryman thraldom, promoting mandatory belief in their fraudulent supernatural links – lineages descending from some primeval tribal god or goddess, or a bloodthirsty national bully. Today’s banking system simply suits their purposes as well as yesterday’s methods of command and control.

Only dynasties have a chance of maintaining the same territorial holdings and ongoing plans over many generations. Only dynasties and the cults they sponsor have the wherewithal to control and edit human history over many millennia. Only the victors get to write history and to control perceptions of reality on a daily basis.

It suits the purposes of the REAL global power mongers for people to believe that the Israelis are behind every calumny in the whole wide world – that they run the US and Britain and that the tail wags the dog. It’s a farcical perspective engendered by purblind Middle Eastern nations, spread far and wide by (other) racists and encouraged by Western countries to misdirect blame and assuage their own guilt.

Judaism is as inherently racist as, say, the Japanese nation and many others. In fact, virtually everyone who identifies with a particular ‘race’ is usually inherently racist. But the crazy tenets of all religions spawned by the followers of that Bronze Age Babylonian child molester Abraham are the prime excuses for humans to hate each other and to destroy the ecosystem – because this real, live, beautiful world just doesn’t matter to idiots who believe that Planet Earth can never be as good as some imaginary future afterlife. True Believers can’t accept the gift of the present. Masterfully trained to ultimately hate themselves and despise their existence, they only dream of pie in the sky.

All the Abrahamic sects are death cults. Followers of Christinanity, Moronism, Islime and heebie-jeebie-believing Jews are death worshipping fantasists who couldn’t live in the NOW if you rubbed their noses in it. They love an imaginary big brother in the clouds more than life– and consciousness – itself. Everything they touch turns to shit and arid desert.

Only some imaginary heavenly Bardo realm matters to them, not Paradise on Earth. As a result they’ve systematically trashed the planet to please their true masters –families of psychotic ex-monarchs who believe they and they alone are worthy to wield power over all others. The fabricated belief in a ‘divine right of kings’- spread by the cults they created – has brainwashed untold generations into serfdom and suffering.

By definition, monarchy is psychosis and monarchs are psychotics.

‘Intelligence’ Agents of Corpora(te Na)tions

Today’s self-styled monarchs are not the kings and queens of old, who in many cases were true representatives of their people. Ancient kingship derived from spiritual awareness and connectedness to the wider tribe. Today’s monarchic rule is rulership over territories, not people, and their territories are far-flung and fluid in the modern world. Today’s monarchs are largely invisible, while some (like the Belgian/Dutch rulers of Britain) hide in plain sight behind false names, masquerading as powerless figureheads. Their only allegiance is to members of their own immediate family, and as far as they’re concerned if you’re not in their family you’re not in their race.

This is paradoxically true of monarchs of every race and colour, a credo shared by reflexive insect hives and hunter-gatherer primate bands alike. It’s nothing unusual, but merely the default state of unselfconscious, unaware, unexamined existence. Racism is simply one of the nastier stigmata demarking the more insecure and less evolved elements of primate tribal nature.

Recognising that blood is thicker than water, that bloodlines rule and that only dynasties have a chance of maintaining the same territorial holdings and ongoing plans over many generations, lesser control freak organisations adopt similar nepotistic practices. They swap their own spouses and children with those of other powerful families and incorporate those of their rivals into their own families in biological ‘friendly mergers’.

Many successful political parties, financial transnationals and industrial conglomerates are now as interbred and inbred as royal families. They control holdings and private armies as extensive as the bloodlines they emulate and occasionally breed with. Many of these busynestmen like to believe they run the world through secret societies of brotherly lodges and deathly oaths that control the purloined prizes of global resources – including intelligence networks.

It suits the interests of ancient bloodlines that the New Money believes this to be the case, but other, even more remote powers rule their bourgeois roost.

In a world of ultimate surveillance, where everything outdoors is nakedly visible to spy satellites, drones or CCTV and almost all indoor areas are similarly observable – where phone lines, airwaves, emails, websites and records of all communications are routinely monitored and stored by systems Big Brother could only fantasise about – it’s gratifying to see the reaction of ‘statesmen’ and executives when their dirty laundry is hung out to dry by anonymous hackers.

Everyone is watched, but the age old question remains; who watches the watchers; who guards the guardians?

The compartmentalised structure of modern intelligence agencies has rendered the hidden work of spies more invisible and unchallengeable than the more grandiose schemes of any secret society of the past. ‘Need to know’ means that no-one really knows anything much – particularly who’s in charge of the vast black budgets provided by unwitting taxpayers. Unheard of weapons and transportation systems have already been deployed – systems that are sometimes under the control of no conventional government. Secret redoubts in extremely remote places, along with extraordinarily expensive means of access have been constructed at a cost of trillions of dollars over many decades by clandestine groups who believe, above all, in their own survival.

The greatest threat to peace, freedom, security and democracy comes not from terrorists, fanatics or even from ‘rogue elements’ within intelligence agencies, but from hidden hands that invisibly manipulate them from the summit of the food chain.

Throughout history there have always been those who occupy the position of puppet master. The real culprits in the ongoing manipulation of events are those with truly long term agendas cemented by the wealth, ties and loyalties attending all dynastic families. Only ruling houses have the wherewithal, endurance and indomitable ruthlessness to maintain control of the apparently headless horsemen of Industry, Finance and Intelligence through generations and centuries. They have long been the ‘secret chiefs’ of magical fraternities and masonic lodges, adept at high order subterfuge and codified control systems. They direct the course of technology and control its disbursal through carefully channelled funding, intimidation and murder. It’s been this way since the time of the Pharaohs, but both truth and change share an incorrigible habit of slipping past all gates, bars and razor wire.

Psychotic control freaks may believe they rule, yet even these indomitable dorks are merely pawns in the grander scheme of things. Even though the rapid desertification of the world’s land surfaces may appear to be an example of ‘unterraforming’ the planet to suit some putative alien invader with designs on local real estate, the truth is that the ecosystem is dying a death of a billion cuts, wielded by almost every human on Earth. Neither alien shapeshifters nor racist monarchies are actually responsible for the destruction of the planetary ecosystem. We all are. You’re the culprit. And, having come this far, you now have a choice to make.

Do you want to see a change?

Real Freedom

No-one likes to realise they’ve been fooled. No-one likes to realise they’ve been wrong. Very few like to admit that they – not some remote shadowy scapegoat – are the problem. Very few are willing to give up their distracting toys, illusory freedoms and toxic pseudo-luxuries and do what’s required – rethink their lives, change their lifestyles, abandon or alter their entrained expectations, resign from their destructive jobs, reconnect with life, grow food, replant the forests, learn to sing and play and play music again, find real friendship in interdependence, leave the toxic cities and get back to the EARTH.

That’s what it will take to save yourself, your soul, your children and your planet, friend; putting down real, solid roots in a healthy water table and extending your awareness into the light of delight.

Expanded consciousness can’t grow amid eternal distraction or ambient fear. It can’t expand while it’s focused on trivia or pain. Almost everyone lives in a hypnagogic, semiconscious, barely awake and scarcely aware state, at one remove from the world of the senses or any other version of true reality.

The world is made of mindstuff and run by hypnosis, and higher consciousness comes with inbuilt filters that make it impossible for anyone attached to material goods or emotional ties to achieve the only real freedom there is – the levity of enlightenment.

Conscious awareness is your true heritage – not temporary material goods, not the ongoing potage of daily distractions and nightly fantasies that comprise pointless existence in modern societies and civilisations. There’s no external truth or external god, but there is an eternal One, and you are it.

Only conscious awareness derived from relentless self-examination can set you free. Know thyself. No excess. The immortal dwells within. Meditate on nothing – nothing at all. It’s the hardest thing in the world, until you achieve it. Then it’s always at hand, ready and waiting for you to re-enter and maintain. Real truth is simpler and more pure than words can possibly convey.

The hippies were always right. Pollution kills. Consciousness is everything, and vice versa. You’re either part of the problem or part of the solution. Think globally, but ACT! Alternatives exist – live them. Grow your hair. Go barefoot. Live in a nice, healthy, comfortable place with a forgiving climate and clean water and air. You can. It’s much easier than those who lock themselves inside barred suburban cells every night can allow themselves to believe. Paradise awaits – we just have to replant it.

You can do MUCH better by putting no more of your time into today’s broken medieval feudal system. It’s easy – and fun – to jump off the rat wheel treadmill. Leave the toxic shitties that were built to keep blindsided workers in their accustomed places. Most cities are unliveable poison sumps now, and all they offer is more ways to lose your lifetime (in case you haven’t noticed). Get down to earth – you have nothing to lose but your pains.

You CAN afford to; can you afford not to? If you’re in a position to buy or otherwise liberate some land and water from moneygrubbing destroyers then do it, even if you ‘only’ intend to allow it to return to wilderness. Share it with anyone who respects it, particularly any remaining native custodians with ancestral links to the place.

And it’s much easier to live off-grid these days than most people imagine. If you can’t afford land there are many communities, landholders and custodians who will help you and give you a place to live if you sincerely seek them out. Everyone needs a hand to heal the planet, and the only way to ensure your food is clean and wholesome is to have a hand in growing it yourself. Just leave all your insecurities and toxins behind and be prepared to CHANGE yourself. Only those who can learn to live with themselves can make the transition.

Turn on. Tune in. OPT OUT of the system with likeminded friends and family and create something new with the only things you really have or own – your time and energy! Together we can still recreate the best of all possible worlds.

Remember why you are alive?

by R. Ayana (who has lived in a tiny shack in a remote forest for 25 years)
Excerpted from nexusilluminati.blogspot.com.au/2014/02/the-men-who-stare…

How to get a Social Web Ready Website Design for Small Businesses

In the 90s, web was all about HTML and plain old static web pages. Then came blogs and content syndication standards such as RSS, Atom and XML. This totally changed the appearance of the World Wide Web. Content became more easily and more readily available across the web. People started sharing their opinions on the web, content generation became a common practice, and the growth of the web sky rocketed.

Then came Web 2.0, with applications designed totally for the web such as twitter, facebook, gmail, digg and so many others. This new web is what many experts call “Social Web”. It’s the era of the web and when the web itself is totally driven by the interactions among the web users. For example content is generated on twitter when you tweet, retweet or share a hyperlink. Content is generated again when someone retweets your tweet or shares it with friends.

A business website today needs to accommodate social web into it is website design. Because this is where the web is heading and if you don’t follow this trend you will be left behind because all your targeted audiences are using the social web and you would be sticking to the cave age period.

A social ready website design means that your website should allow the visitors to use their social web profiles on your website to record their interactions with the content on your web pages. For example you might have noticed that many popular blogs now offer their visitors a chance to comment on their posts by connecting from their facebook account. This is mutually benefit for both the website owner and the visitor. As the visitor comments on their website using their facebook account their comment with the link to this webpage gets posted on their profile. This means it will become visible to their friends and they can come to the website to contribute their own thoughts on the matter.
Website design for the social web not only allows the visitors to sign in with their facebook accounts, it gives them a variety of opportunities to use their social profiles in many different ways on their website. For example for social bookmarkers there is a handy widget added to website design so that social bookmarks can easily be posted on sites like Digg, Stumbleupon, Delicious, Mixx, reddit, etc.

Allowing visitors to use their social web profiles on your business website does not make your website social ready, until the website itself starts using different social web profiles on the website. For example a business account on twitter, or a facebook fanpage, or both can be added to sidebar allowing your website’s visitors to follow you on their social network, become your fan or friend, and interact it with you and the content you publish on your business website.

You can also use your social web profiles to bring traffic to your business website, and from your business website to your social web profiles. Using social web not only makes your website more user friendly in this age and time but it also strengthens your brand image as a modern web savvy business.

Claudia Winifred is a Brand Manager and also a content writer. She loves to write content for Logo Design & Website Design Companies.

4.321: You be the judge
Website Design Practice
Image by giulia.forsythe
Interactive Workshop by students in DART 3F77, Dramatic Arts at Brock University (aka Mirror Theatre) and directed by Dr. Joe Norris on March 20, 2012 sponsored by Brock University Centre for Pedagogical Innovation.

A series of vignettes designed to tap into the lived experiences of students, performed by students in improvisational style addressing a range of topics as Ranking, Appropriate relationships, merit pay, making an example, diversity of approaches, who judges the judge, making the grade, deadlines, accommodations, fairness, cheating.

The session did not aim to give answers, rather they were designed to "haunt you, encouraging you to examine how we can put a human face to these practices"

Questions:

How pervasive is assessment in your life?
What have been its positive/negative effects?
Whate are your preferred forms of assessment?
How have you been unjustly judged?
How have YOU unjustly judged?

Mirror Theatre devises social issues performances/workshops for community projects.

For further information, visit the website: www.joenorrisplaybuilding.ca/
or contact Joe Norris at jnorris@brocku.ca, @JoeNorrisDrama

Website Design And Development – Top Five Simple Tips For A Great Site

One of the biggest blunder by business owners in preparing for a website is to assume it will work by itself if it is out there. Websites need careful consideration and perpetual attention similar to any ongoing marketing venture. A website adds to a business’ online presence and promotes its brand name. It is vital to work on the website continually and sort out potential pain points that stop prospects from staying on it.

The following tips can make your site more attractive to users:

Use legible font size and type

A web page that needs customers to zoom in to read text easily is a sure sale killer. The size of text is an important factor in good web design. Words with ample spacing and right font size make the content easily readable, thus encouraging users to read the page to the end. Using dark colored text on a light background is good web design practice that is endorsed and followed by the majority of designers.

Make navigation easy

No client will waste time on a site that cannot be navigated easily. Links, buttons, tabs and graphics should be displayed clearly and easy to reach. The choice of design elements built into the website should match the competence and ability of the target audience to use them. A newfangled web design element will spoil the user experience if it confuses site visitors. Also test the website on popular internet browsers to ensure that all design elements appear as anticipated.

Prominently display contact information

A website that prominently lists its contact particulars earns the customer’s trust. By including telephone numbers, address, email addresses or fax numbers, a business underlines its credibility and communicates to the customer “We are a bona fide company.”

Advertise the website

Customers will not not know about a website unless you tell them about it. Businesses should advertise the website using various channels such as:

* email advertisements

* direct mail

* newsletters

* newspaper and magazine advertisements (on paper and internet)

* social media networks

* search engine marketing (SEM)

* search engine optimization

* PPC advertisements

* registration in directory services

* billboards

* links from other websites

Maintaining uniformity in web design

The importance of consistent theme, colors, content writing style, font size, and use of images all over the site is often underestimated. Unexpected changes confuse the customers’ attention while consistency keeps them interested. You don’t want to unsettle a customer when she is moving towards a sale. Avoid using numerous colors as it clutters the site. Good web design has more or less four colors throughout the site.

Developing a search engine friendly site

Search engines use software tools called spiders that crawl millions of website pages and index them for page rankings. A website that does not load quickly, has broken links, is not easy to navigate or has not been refreshed frequently loses points with search engines. Use graphics, animations, and images sparingly and only where needed to add to the meaning of text. Slow websites are not crawled as deeply or as frequently by bots. Do not let this happen to your site.

Developing and implementing a website involves comprehensive effort. There is no doubt that your hard work will show results as customers will certainly visit again and recommend a website that is sophisticated, has high usability, and perfectly suited to their needs.

Inside the Urban Lantern
Website Design Practice
Image by Cliff_Baise
Holy crap the new Fort Worth museum of Science and History is AWESOME! I went today with the family and got some really cool pics. I couldn’t take my tripod but did take my monopod. Some are a little shaky, but still nice. It was good to practice my Terminator pose. Look for ’em coming up in the next few days.

This is one cool structure. I’m going to have to get a fisheye because the ol 14-24 just couldn’t squeeze all this in.

The following is an excerpt from their website:
One of the most stunning features of the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History’s new building is the “Urban Lantern,” an element common to structures designed by architects Legorreta + Legorreta. As a beacon of learning, and as the anchor of the new Museum campus, the Lantern serves as the main entrance to the 166,000-square-foot building.

“The idea of creating an urban lantern came from the notion of orientation within the city,” said acclaimed architect Ricardo Legorreta. “In the same way that lighthouses guide ships at sea, we wanted to guide people in the city to the museum.

“At the same time, we were able to play with two elements that are always present in our architecture and we think symbolize a lot of what this museum is about – light and color,” Legorreta added. “In our interpretation, light symbolizes knowledge, creativity, imagination, and spirituality. Color, on the other hand, for us means passion for life, humanism and happiness. After working in the museum we have found that all these values have always been an integral part of its philosophy.”

The Urban Lantern measures 76 feet tall, including glass panels, steel, and stone base. It comprises 97 yellow-fretted glass panels measuring 5’-7” x 5’-7” and weighing 500 lbs. each.

You gotta view it large to "see" it.

Lawyer Website Design – Get Amazing Website Design For Attorney

Law website designing has gained prominence thanks to the cut-throat competition existing in the legal arena. To garner attention and appreciation in a market teeming with lawyers it is not enough just excelling being a lawyer. There is a need to design an Attorney Website either from the beginning or revamping an existing website. It is not merely a cheap website design that counts. There is need to have certain features that includes regular editing and updating the website; designing and posting blogs related to the site; web hosting; editing contents; helping new users with Search Engine Optimization (SEO); able to advertising through Pay Per Click and building social network through Facebook, Twitter and other sites apart from designing logos, business cards, brochures and creating billboards.

The Parallax effect or parallax scrolling in web design can also be incorporated. This is an interesting feature with layered images moving around the website in different speeds/perspectives creating a nice 3D illusion. It makes scrolling around websites an interesting experience. In web design, the parallax effect is a relatively new trend.

It is better to opt for Law Website Design companies as these companies have a good idea to present client’s services in a way that will grab attention from the target group.

Website design is an art that if done properly can actively generate clients to one’s practice by projecting the exact image an attorney wishes to project to his clients. It gives a personal touch when clients see a video of the attorney stating to what he stands for and what his experience is as otherwise reaching the multitudes through television medium is very expensive. A website with introduction serves as a good substitute targeting a large audience. There is also enough time and space to relate accomplishments and objectives to the public unlike squeezing information in the limited columns of a newspaper.

Lawyer website design companies provide comprehensive information to clients to determine for themselves if it is the right attorney they are looking for. These companies help in giving a professional look to appeal to big and small clients – individuals and companies alike and most importantly save time, effort and money in looking for the lawyer who specializes in their area of requirement.

When looking for an effective attorney website design company, ensure that the team of designers has a basic understanding of law and have experience in web page designing in sync with market demands and trends. These design companies will take care of advertising and client-generation work to their ingenious designing.

ColaLife 4g/200ml ORS Sachets
Website Design Practice
Image by ColaLife
Four of these especially manufactured ORS sachets goes into each Anti-Diarrhoea Kit (ADK).

Why 4g/200ml?

The standard 20g/1litre were designed for institutional use for situations where you have several children to treat at the same time.

In the home situation with one sick child you will only need around 400ml in a 24 hour period and so, if you follow the instructions, you will throw 600ml away. Poor people do not throw people things away so in practice a portion of the ORS sachet is sprinkled into an indeterminate amount of water which means the solution is either too weak or too strong.

These sachets form part of the Kit Yamoyo anti-diarrhoea kit which is carried in a package with also acts as a measure and mixing device for the correct mixing of the ORS.
Image Credit: Simon Berry, ColaLife

Best Customized Website Design

Website Design as an occupation has a short history, graphic design-like performance can be seen throughout history: from bushman painting to the stunning hieroglyphs of Egypt. In this wide-ranging history and in the comparatively new explosion of optical communication in the twentieth and twenty first centuries, there is occasionally an indistinct feature of advertising art, graphic design and fine art. They carve up many of the same basics, principles, customs and languages.

In advertising art the critical goal is the sale of goods and services. In graphic design, the quintessence is to provide form to facts, shape to information, articulation and emotion to artifacts that records individual experience. Mantaray Design Studio is in the business of innovative, creative, original, ethical and successful visual communication and presentation for our clients.

Our key provision includes digital and graphic design; project management; tactical marketing campaigns; market research and in-house instruction for clients to administer and amend their own websites. We focus on customer-branded publications, the design and drafting of newsletters, newspapers, books, textbooks, annual reports, academic research reports, digital and website design and development. We create content that is branded across many different and varied platforms.

Specific methods are used to create and combine symbols, imagery, and expressions to create a visual demonstration of ideas and communication. We use typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to produce the final result. Graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication is created and the products (designs) which are generated.

General application of graphic design includes magazines, adverts and merchandise wrapping. For instance, a manufactured goods package may contain an insignia or artwork, ordered wording and clean design essentials such as form and color which fuse the part of the pack. Work of art is one of the largely key characters of graphic design particularly when using pre-existing resources or varied essentials.

Mantaray Design Studio employs design, creativeness, scrutiny and investigation to develop your tactical marketing plan. We endeavor to produce superlative designs with an excellent and brilliant work ethic. We include the utmost potential intensity of expertise and understanding while being politically, publicly and environmentally judicious and perceptive to a shifting world.

We practice the African philosophy of Ubuntu. It states that ‘I am because we are’ and so we seek to plant the seeds of a long-term and mutually profitable relationship with our clients. We pride ourselves on delivering exceptional, personal, ethical and honest service – this philosophy is our driving commitment to our clients and what truly sets us apart.

Before you decide to acquire a website, make sure you check Manataray Design’s outstanding tailored and creative website design, so that you get the best possible customized website

Newer Concept
Website Design Practice
Image by Alan Stanton
28 February 2015. ‘New Concept Unisex Hair Salon’, 447 High Road, Tottenham N17 6QH. During the works to give this business a new shop front design.

This is one of a handful of Tottenham businesses which got a public subsidy for its redesigned shpfront. The cash came from the Mayor of London’s Outer London Fund. (OLF).
 The ‘New Concept’ is two doors from the John McAslan + Partners N17 Design Studio at 451 High Road, Tottenham.
  A handful of other businesses in West Green Road N15 were also favoured by a grant of public money in this way.
           ________

To be clear, I’m not suggesting that public money must never be spent in attempts to revitalise local businesses. But I am raising issues about:

Equity
Who gets public money to "do up" a shop front? And what about the other businesses which don’t? Great for ‘New Concept’. But how is this fair for all the other hairdressers, nail bars, and hundreds more businesses in Tottenham?

Selection
Who chooses and with what criteria?

Who Benefits?
The simple answer may seem to be that the shop benefits. But sometimes it’s not that simple. Giving public money to businesses can have unexpected consequences depending on who owns the business and its premises.
  For example in the past there have been cases where public money was – in effect – "rewarding" absentee landlords who failed to maintain their properties.
  Will landlords later raise rents on the improved premises?
  How far do such schemes persuade traders and/or building owners to spend more maintaining the the fabric of their buildings? Or to maintain the new shop fronts? Or is the grant seen just as a windfall? – An unexpected handout from the Council?
  Some traders in Tottenham High Road appear to be marginal businesses with very limited resources to invest. Or be reluctant to find the money because, by the terms of their leases, this duty falls on their landlord.
  There seems an assumption by Councils and other bodies that small local independent businesses are entirely within the local economy. I suggest this should be a question rather than taken for granted. Traders and shop staff may live in the locality. But that’s not always the case.
  There may also be complex property tenure issues. A shop may have a chain of property ownership – in some cases linking to freehold owners living abroad who view their property only as an investment to produce income.

What Work is Done?
"Doing-up" shop fronts is a relatively easy way to demonstrate that something is happening. (‘Something visible must be done’ Here’s something. Good, let’s do it’.)
  How far is this a quick-fix cosmetic exercise? And a speedy way to spend small amounts of time-limited funds. The Outer London Fund was a three year initiative and cash had to be spent by the end of March 2015. Get the money "out of the door" – is often the case with time-limited external funding. Especially when judged on notional "outputs": targets met; projects "delivered"; cash spent.
  Which leaves open the larger question: what evidence is there to show whether or not this "fixes" anything in the medium to longer term?

What’s the theory behind the scheme?
Is there, for example, an assumption renewing a shop front will increase business? Or is the aim to model improvement in the hope that other businesses follow suit? Perhaps there’s an idea about raising the image of local shops so new customers are attracted? And not just to those improved, but to all the nearby businesses?
  Crucially, if it has one or more of these aims is there collection and retention of reliable evidence that the aims have succeeded either wholly or or partially? Or perhaps there’s evidence of unexpected but still valuable outcomes?

What about the High Streets Crisis?
While we’re wondering about the theory used here, the wider context is also important. Because once again we see the apparently uncritical repetition of a traditional old scheme: a programme of small grants for shopfronts. As if nothing had been said; or researched; or written; or reported on: the High Streets Crisis.
  Has Haringey forgotten the Mary Portas Review? Or the The Grimsey Review? And probably dozens (or even hundreds) more such reports.
  Has anyone even thought about the impact on shops in High Road, Tottenham should the Council succeed in its plan for a "Joint Venture" with Hermes Real Estate and Argent to create yet another "Town Centre". (i.e. Anytown Retail mall.) on the Tottenham Hale Retail Park half a mile away? (Source: Haringey Council website.

Recording and Learning I’m suggesting that, at best such an initiative might be a useful experiment. Hopefully, it may provide evidence of outcomes such as a boost to businesses and to confidence both to customers and for traders deciding e.g. whether or not to invest. Or perhaps to move their business.
  It may also show what doesn’t work. So traders, and the Council won’t repeat the mistakes. This assumes there’s a willingness to record, acknowledge and learn from both success and error. But without some degree of objective monitoring and recording of outcomes it’s not an experiment but a matter of faith.
  What’s completely unhelpful is the practice of Haringey’s current "leadership" – repeating the wrong things; then spinning failure as success.

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More Useful Links

§ Webpage for the Outer London Fund.
§ Haringey Council itself has in the past, carried out many High Road building restoration projects. I don’t know whether or not this led to any organisational learning.
§ The Infed.org website gives a readable introduction to some of the ideas and theories of Chris Agyris and Donald Schon including:
theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning.
§ Google Street View link to Windsor Parade.

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